It is often claimed that technology can be used as a tool that can facilitate teaching and learning and contribute to learners’ achievement. This article reports on a study about how KwaZulu-Natal mathematics teachers use, access and integrate technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics. A questionnaire containing closed and Likert scale questions regarding the use of technology, was distributed to 75 KwaZulu-Natal mathematics teachers. The findings reveal that the technology used most commonly by the group for teaching mathematics is calculators. Almost all the teachers reported that they never use computers in their teaching of mathematics. Although the teachers reported that they do not use computers in teaching and learning, about 80% of the participants conveyed a positive view that using technology improves learners’ understanding of mathematics. The findings further indicate that the teachers’ propensity to use technology in instructional practice is associated with demographic factors related to teaching experience, gender, level of study and participation in professional learning activities. The study also showed that teachers who have access to internet instructional resources have higher levels of confidence in teaching mathematics and hold broader beliefs about the nature of mathematics and the aims of teaching mathematics than the teachers who do not use the internet for instructional purposes.

The rapidly growing influence of technology in the 21st century has led to calls for teaching and learning to be transformed to prepare learners to compete within the global knowledge economy. Learning in the 21st century requires the collaboration of well-trained teachers, working in well-equipped classrooms and using technology innovatively to support a constructive learning atmosphere (Molnár,

The potential of technology to transform the classroom is recognised by the South African Department of Education (DOE) which supports the idea of introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in South African schools (Department of Basic Education [DBE],

Thus, teachers are encouraged to develop their capability and innovation to make the best use of the potential of digital devices in augmenting learner performance (Ndlovu & Lawrence,

This article addresses the use of technology in teaching mathematics and statistics. Recent advances in technology have unlocked entirely new directions for education research. In this study, we try to make a contribution towards finding out more about the use of technology in KwaZulu-Natal schools. The study also explores the relationship between teachers’ use of technology and their confidence and beliefs about the ways in which mathematics should be taught. To our knowledge, no previous study has focused on these issues. Furthermore, the study looks at some factors that may have a relationship with the use of technology. It is hoped that the knowledge contributed by this study will help the education department in their planning and provision for teacher support in the use of technology. We also hope that this study will help other researchers identify areas in the field of mathematics teachers’ use of technology which need more attention.

The integration of technology in teaching and learning is not intended to replace traditional methods, but to support schools to improve teaching and learning (Tishkovskaya & Lancaster,

The GAISE College Report (GAISE College Report ASA Revision Committee,

ICTs, especially computers and internet technologies, support new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allowing teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way (Noor-Ul-Amin,

Technological tools can also open up access to a wider variety of problem-solving strategies than those limited to paper and pencil strategies (Bansilal,

Tools such as online videos allow the students to vary the pace at which they can learn new material in mathematics (Bansilal,

Purcell, Heaps, Buchanan and Friedrich (

Some studies have reported that the use of technology also increases teachers’ confidence in the content (Brändström,

Research conducted in South Africa reports that the use of computers tends to feature fairly extensively in the learning areas of language and mathematics, natural sciences and technology, and less in humanities and arts (Lundall & Howell,

Leendertz et al. (

Sometimes the failure by teachers to integrate technology in their classrooms is because of problems that are beyond their control (Marwan,

Teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning play a major role in their decisions about how to teach the content. Hollingsworth (

Several studies have focused on teachers’ beliefs about technology (Cavas et al.,

Further factors that have been explored with respect to teachers’ use of ICT are gender and age. The findings of Choi (

Sabzian and Gilakjani (

Using factor analysis, Leendertz, Blignaut, Ellis and Nieuwoudt (

This article addresses the use of technology in teaching mathematic in KwaZulu-Natal schools. As illustrated by the literature, recent advances in technology have unlocked entirely new directions for education research and we briefly surveyed some of the more pertinent studies in this area. We first looked at the ways in which digital classrooms support students’ learning, before moving to the use of particular tools for instruction such as the internet which is a focus of this study. We then reviewed studies that investigated the association between using technology and particular demographic factors. The literature review also included studies about challenges faced by teachers in trying to increase the use of ICT in their classrooms. This review serves as a useful foundation to look at the use of technology by a group of KwaZulu-Natal mathematics teachers, and to identify the factors that are associated with it.

This quantitative study is a part of a larger doctoral study by the first author, developed to investigate teachers’ knowledge of, beliefs about and confidence in teaching mathematics (Umugiraneza, Bansilal, & North,

The questionnaire included several parts such as questions related to teachers’ confidence and beliefs, teaching practices (lesson planning, teaching methods and assessments, etc.), predicting learners’ responses and the use of technology.

In this article, we focus on the teachers’ responses to items regarding the implementation of technology in their instructional practice. Teachers were required to respond to statements on a four-point Likert item scale with categories 1 (‘never’), 2 (‘rarely’), 3 (‘sometimes’) and 4 (‘often’) to indicate how often they integrated technology in teaching mathematics. They were also asked about their access to calculators, computers and the internet and the extent to which these were used for teaching mathematics in their classrooms. Teachers were also asked to rate their level of confidence in teaching mathematics topics using a three-point Likert item scale with categories 1 (‘low’), 2 (‘moderate’) and 3 (‘high’). Their beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics were rated using a three-point Likert item scale with categories 1 (‘disagree’), 2 (‘neutral’) and 3 (‘agree’).

This research was underpinned by the following research questions: (1) To what extent do mathematics teachers incorporate technology into their teaching practices? (2) To what extent are teachers positive about using technology in the teaching of mathematics? (3) Is there any relationship between demographic factors and the use of technology in instructional practices?

Participants by demographic factors.

Factors | Definition (codes) | Frequency (%) |
---|---|---|

Gender | Female (0) | 37 (49.3) |

Male (1) | 38 (50.3) | |

Level of education | Bachelor’s degree (0) | 35 (60.0) |

Postgraduate and above (1) | 40 (40.0) | |

Age group | ≤ 40 years (0) | 44 (58.7) |

> 40 years (1) | 31 (41.3) | |

Quintile school | Q1 (0) | 15 (20.0) |

Q2 (1) | 28 (37.4) | |

Q3 (2) | 16 (21.3) | |

Q4 and above (3) | 16 (21.3) | |

Phases | GET (Grade 4–9) (0) | 30 (40.0) |

FET (Grade 10–12) (1) | 45 (60.0) | |

Teaching experience | ≤ 10 years (0) | 45 (60.0) |

> 10 years (1) | 30 (40.0) | |

Attended mathematics workshop | No (0) | 30 (40.0) |

Yes (1) | 45 (60.0) | |

Met with a local group of teachers to study and discuss mathematics and statistics teaching on a regular basis | No (0) | 24 (32.0) |

Yes (1) | 51 (68.0) | |

Use National Curriculum Statement in teaching mathematics and statistics | No (0) | 34 (45.3) |

Yes (1) | 41 (54.7) |

The data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 version (George & Mallery,

We used cross tabulation with chi-square test of independence at significance level

This test is a standard statistical procedure to test whether there is evidence of a statistically significant relationship between two categorical variables, as opposed to the two categorical variables operating independently. It is assumed that if the

We further used a comparison of means (a standard test used to compare differences between means of two or more groups) to explore whether there appears to be a statistically significant relationship between teachers’ demographics and their use of technology in the different instructional practices. This test was used to examine the magnitude of the difference between two groups in terms of using technology.

All ethical considerations stipulated by the University of KwaZulu-Natal were adhered to. Out of the group of 136 teachers who were approached to take part in the study, only 75 opted to participate. The participants were guaranteed anonymity and were also given the choice to withdraw from the research if they wanted to. Permission to carry out the research was granted by University of KwaZulu-Natal with the protocol number HSS/1529/015D.

We start by exploring the extent to which the teachers have access to calculators, computers and the internet in teaching mathematics, followed by details about the instructional purposes for which the technology is used. Thereafter we report in more detail on the differences in confidence and beliefs of teachers who use the internet for instructional purposes, and those who do not. This section is organised according to the research questions of the study.

Access to technology.

Question | No | Yes |
---|---|---|

Frequency (%) | Frequency (%) | |

Are calculators available in your school? | 26 (34.7) | 49 (65.3) |

Do you use calculators for teaching mathematics or statistics | 26 (34.7) | 49 (65.3) |

Are computers available? | 42 (56.0) | 33 (44.0) |

Do you use them for teaching mathematics and statistics | 54 (72.0) | 21 (28.0) |

Do any of the computers learners use have access to the internet? | 55 (73.3) | 20 (26.7) |

Do you use the internet for educational instructional purposes? | 56 (74.7) | 19 (25.3) |

Reports about the availability of computers at schools suggest similar figures to those reported by the teachers in this study. In 2015, it was found that 33.2% of schools had computers (South Africa Institute of Race Relations,

The use of computers and calculators in teaching mathematics and statistics was disaggregated by the grade in which teachers were teaching.

The use of calculators and computers by grade.

Grades | Calculators |
Computers |
||
---|---|---|---|---|

Yes (%) | No (%) | Yes (%) | No (%) | |

4–9 | 11 (36.7) | 19 (63.3) | 3 (10.0) | 27 (90.0) |

10–12 | 38 (84.4) | 7 (15.6) | 18 (40.0) | 27 (60.0) |

It is evident that in the schools represented in the study, the use of computers in the classroom is still at very low levels and much effort is needed to sensitise teachers to using computers for improved teaching of mathematics and statistics. This finding shows that the DOE (

Mishra and Koehler (

Drill and practice mathematics software offers teachers a relatively simple way to use technology in the classroom (Kuiper & De Pater-Sneep,

Exploration of the use of technology in teachers’ practice.

Teaching practice | Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Often |
---|---|---|---|---|

Drill and practice | 46 (61.3) | 7 (9.3) | 12 (16.0) | 10 (13.4) |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 42 (56.0) | 9 (12.0) | 9 (12.0) | 15 (20.0) |

Collect data using sensors or probes (collecting data using software) | 48 (64.0) | 13 (17.3) | 6 (8.0) | 8 (11.7) |

Retrieve or exchange data | 47 (62.7) | 8 (10.7) | 12 (16.0) | 8 (10.7) |

Solve and compute statistical problems | 46 (61.3) | 8 (10.7) | 10 (13.3) | 11 (14.7) |

Take a test or quiz | 41 (54.7) | 8 (10.7) | 11 (14.7) | 15 (20.0) |

Note: Data are shown as frequency with percentage in brackets.

The data allowed us to look in more detail at the specific use of the internet for instructional purposes and to test whether this use was linked to certain factors. Ndlovu and Lawrence’s (

We now investigate the links between the use of the internet and teachers’ confidence and beliefs.

Recent studies articulate that there exists a connection between teachers’ confidence and the use of technology (Brändström,

The results showed a statistical significant relationship between using the internet for educational instructional purposes and teachers’ confidence in teaching mathematics or statistics topics. It can be noted from ^{2} = 6.082(2), effect size = 0.285, ^{2} = 9.835 (2), effect size = 0.362, ^{2} = 12.231 (2), effect size = 0.320, ^{2} = 13.747 (2), effect size = 0.428, ^{2} = 6.399 (2), effect size = 0.292, ^{2} = 8.573 (2), effect size = 0.338,

Using internet for instructional purposes and teachers’ confidence.

Topics | Teachers’ confidence | Using internet for instructional purposes |
|||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

No | Yes | Total | χ^{2} ( |
Effect size | |||

Percentages | Low | 7 (12.5) | 1 (5.3) | 8 (10.7) | 6.082 (2) | 0.048 | 0.285 |

Moderate | 16 (28.6) | 1 (5.3) | 17 (22.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 33 (58.9) | 17 (89.5) | 50 (66.7) | - | - | - | |

Ratios and proportions | Low | 11 (19.6) | 0 (0.0) | 11 (14.7) | 9.835 (2) | 0.007 | 0.362 |

Moderate | 23 (41.1) | 4 (21.1) | 27 (36.0) | - | - | - | |

High | 22 (39.3) | 15 (78.9) | 37 (49.3) | - | - | - | |

Pie graphs and histograms | Low | 11 (19.6) | 1 (5.3) | 12 (16.0) | 12.231 (2) | 0.002 | 0.320 |

Moderate | 17 (30.4) | 0 (0.0) | 17 (22.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 28 (50.0) | 18 (94.7) | 46 (61.3) | - | - | - | |

Pattern and algebra | Low | 11 (19.6) | 0 (0.0) | 11 (14.7) | 13.747 (2) | 0.001 | 0.428 |

Moderate | 19 (33.9) | 1 (5.3) | 20 (26.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 26 (46.4) | 18 (94.7) | 44 (58.7) | - | - | - | |

Measurement (Length, area, volume and time) | Low | 9 (16.1) | 0 (0.0) | 9 (12.0) | 6.399 (2) | 0.041 | 0.292 |

Moderate | 20 (35.7) | 4 (21.1) | 24 (32.0) | - | - | - | |

High | 27 (48.2) | 15 (78.9) | 42 (56.0) | - | - | - | |

Mental computation | Low | 14 (25.0) | 2 (10.5) | 16 (21.3) | 8.573 (2) | 0.014 | 0.338 |

Moderate | 25 (44.6) | 4 (21.1) | 29 (38.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 17 (30.4) | 13 (68.4) | 30 (40.0) | - | - | - |

Note: Yes, No and Total columns are shown as frequency with percentage in brackets.

The values of effect sizes in

Using internet for education instructional purpose and teachers’ beliefs about teaching mathematics.

Variable | Level of agreement | Using internet for educational instructional purpose |
|||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

No | Yes | Total | χ^{2} ( |
Effect size | |||

Mathematics teaching should assist learners to develop an attitude of inquiry (asking questions, being curious about solutions) | Disagree | 1 (1.8) | 0 (0.0) | 1 (1.3) | 6.362 (2) | 0.042 | 0.291 |

Neutral | 14 (25.0) | 00.0) | 14 (18.7) | - | - | - | |

Agree | 41 (73.2) | 19 (100.0) | 60 (80.0) | - | - | - | |

Statistical literacy, thinking and reasoning are the main goals in statistical teaching and learning | Disagree | 1 (1.8) | 0 (0.0) | 1 (1.3) | 7.458 (2) | 0.024 | 0.315 |

Neutral | 16 (28.6) | 0 (0.0) | 16 (21.3) | - | - | - | |

Agree | 39 (69.6) | 19 (100.0) | 58 (77.3) | - | - | - | |

Connecting mathematics to other key learning areas | Low | 20 (35.7) | 1 (5.3) | 21 (28.0) | 11.79 (2) | 0.003 | 0.404 |

Moderate | 21 (37.5) | 5 (26.3) | 26 (34.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 15 (26.8) | 13 (68.4) | 28 (37.3) | - | - | - | |

Using statistics outside of the classroom | Low | 17 (30.4) | 2 (10.5) | 19 (25.3) | 8.701 (2) | 0.013 | 0.397 |

Moderate | 22 (39.3) | 4 (21.1) | 26 (34.7) | - | - | - | |

High | 17 (30.4) | 13 (68.4) | 30 (40.0) | - | - | - |

Note: Yes, No and Total columns are shown as frequency with percentage in brackets.

Teachers’ beliefs about using technology in teaching and learning.

Teachers’ beliefs | Disagree | Neutral | Agree | Total |
---|---|---|---|---|

Using technology to assess mathematics learning | 3 (4.0) | 12 (16) | 60 (80.0) | 75 (100) |

Using technology helps with increasing learners’ learning and understanding of statistics | 11 (14.7) | 15 (20) | 49 (65.3) | 75 (100) |

Note: Data are shown as frequency with percentage in brackets.

We further examined whether there is a significant relationship between using the internet for educational instructional purposes and teachers’ beliefs about the nature of mathematics. It can be noted from ^{2} = 6.362 (2), effect size = 0.291, ^{2} = 6.050 (2), effect size = 0.284, ^{2} = 7.458 (2), effect size = 0.315, ^{2} = 11.797 (2), effect size = 0.404, ^{2} = 8.701 (2), effect size = 0.397,

We further used a comparison of means to identify factors that may be associated with teachers’ positive beliefs towards technology. It can be noted from

Teachers’ beliefs about technology and effect of demographic factors.

Teachers’ beliefs about technology | Factors | Sum of squares | Mean square | Effect size | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Using technology to assess mathematics learning. | Age group | 2.569 | 2.569 | 4.912 | 0.030 | 0.251 |

Using curriculum | 3.641 | 3.641 | 7.164 | 0.009 | 0.299 | |

Professional learning | 5.141 | 5.141 | 10.541 | 0.002 | 0.355 | |

Using technology helps with increasing learners’ learning and understanding of statistics. | Age group | 2.136 | 2.136 | 8.886 | 0.004 | 0.329 |

Using curriculum | 1.260 | 1.260 | 4.995 | 0.028 | 0.253 | |

Professional learning | 1.102 | 1.102 | 4.328 | 0.041 | 0.237 |

These results support the findings of Cavas et al. (

We further note that teachers who use the National Curriculum Statement in their teaching have positive beliefs that technology influences learning and understanding of statistics 40 (

Teachers largely agreed that the use of technology helps learners to develop their understanding of mathematics and statistics topics. Forty-nine out of 75 (65.3%) teachers said they believed that they would integrate technology into teaching and learning mathematics and statistics in the classroom.

Furthermore, the findings indicate that teachers who reported that they meet with a local group of teachers and discuss mathematics and statistics teaching on a regular basis as a part of their professional learning expressed positive beliefs that technology enhances learners’ understanding (

Technology knowledge, as with other aspects of teacher knowledge, is not constant. It develops over time according to teachers’ professional development or training, teaching experience as well as teachers’ attainment of a higher level of education, and so on. The comparison of means (a standard test used to compare differences between means of two or more groups) was used to identify factors associated with teachers’ tendency to integrate technology into their teaching practice as reported in

Factors associated with teachers’ use of technology.

Factor | Teachers’ practice | Mean square | Effect size | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Level of education | Drill and practice | 29.501 | 32.686 | 0.000 | |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 43.819 | 47.700 | 0.000 | ||

Collect data using sensors or probes | 19.069 | 24.034 | 0.000 | ||

Retrieve or exchange data | 26.244 | 31.960 | 0.000 | ||

Solve and compute statistical problems | 34.744 | 40.488 | 0.000 | ||

Take a test or quiz | 45.054 | 49.128 | 0.000 | ||

Quintile schools | Drill and practice | 4.536 | 3.938 | 0.012 | 0.143 |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 8.384 | 6.944 | 0.000 | ||

Collect data using sensors or probes | 6.383 | 6.761 | 0.000 | ||

Retrieve or exchange data | 8.575 | 8.496 | 0.000 | ||

Solve and compute statistical problems | 3.681 | 2.588 | 0.060 | 0.099 | |

Gender | Drill and practice | 15.586 | 14.258 | 0.000 | 0.163 |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 22.461 | 18.544 | 0.000 | ||

Collect data using sensors or probes | 12.281 | 13.855 | 0.000 | 0.160 | |

Retrieve or exchange data | 13.026 | 12.997 | 0.001 | 0.151 | |

Solve and compute statistical problems | 15.586 | 13.909 | 0.000 | 0.160 | |

Take a test or quiz | 25.818 | 21.869 | 0.000 | ||

Experience | Drill and practice | 20.909 | 20.494 | 0.000 | |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 21.780 | 17.844 | 0.000 | 0.196 | |

Collect data using sensors or probes | 10.276 | 11.244 | 0.001 | 0.133 | |

Retrieve or exchange data | 16.820 | 17.701 | 0.000 | 0.195 | |

Solve and compute statistical problems | 13.176 | 11.421 | 0.001 | 0.135 | |

Take a test or quiz | 12.500 | 9.171 | 0.003 | 0.112 | |

Attended workshops | Drill and practice | 7.738 | 6.445 | 0.013 | 0.081 |

Demonstrate statistics principles | 9.572 | 6.897 | 0.011 | 0.086 | |

Collect data using sensors or probes | 4.485 | 4.516 | 0.037 | 0.058 | |

Retrieve or exchange data | 7.848 | 7.313 | 0.009 | 0.091 | |

Solve and compute statistical problems | 7.738 | 6.301 | 0.014 | 0.079 | |

Take a test or quiz | 7.114 | 4.951 | 0.029 | 0.064 |

Note: Effect sizes between 0.2 and 0.4 (in bold) indicate that the difference between groups in terms of using technology has moderate practical significance.

The findings reveal that the difference between the means is statistically significant for the factors of gender, level of study, teaching experience, attending workshops and school quintile and their ability to integrate technology in different instructional practices at

We also discuss the statistical relationship between some factors and the use of technology reported in

We found that teachers who took postgraduate courses may be more likely to use technology than teachers who have a bachelor’s degree or below. It can be noted from

Using technology for instructional practice by level of education.

The education department introduced a funding policy by using a system of categorising schools into five quintiles in order to inform decisions around financial allocations. Quintile 1 schools are those serving the poorest children while Quintile 5 schools cater for children who come from well-resourced backgrounds. Looking at

We observe from

Using technology for instructional practice by school quintile.

Thus, mean scores for teachers who teach in quintile 4 and 5 are greater in terms of drilling and practice and demonstrating statistical principles than for those who teach in quintile 1, 2 and 3 schools in terms of using technology (e.g. 2.630 versus 1.690 or 1.570, 3.060 versus 1.750 or 1.570).

It is evident, therefore, that teachers who teach in the poorest schools are using technology to a lesser extent than those in the more well-resourced schools, which illustrates the digital divide between the poorest and the richest schools. However, it is important to note that teachers need more than access to use technology; they also need support in using the technology to teach more effectively. Ndlovu and Lawrence (

The findings further showed that male teachers are more likely to integrate technology into their educational practice than female teachers, given that the mean scores of male teachers were higher than those of female teachers (e.g. 2.500 versus 1.405, 0.921 versus 0.165, etc.). This finding supports results from a study in Africa (Buabeng-Andoh,

Furthermore, it was noted that teachers whose teaching experience is 10 years or fewer were more likely to use technology than the teachers with teaching experience more than 10 years (e.g. 2.180 versus 1.250, 2.330 versus 1.400, etc.). This finding was also reported in another study (Almekhlafi & Almeqdadi,

A statistically significant difference was also apparent between using technology in instructional practice and professional learning. This means that teachers who attended mathematical workshops may be more likely to use technology than those who did not (e.g. 2.148 versus 1.357, 1.967 versus 1.143, etc.). However, the effect sizes (

Digital classrooms to support students’ learning have been the focus of research recently and this article reveals some of the challenges that schools in poorer communities in South Africa experience in this regard. Results from this study indicate that approximately a quarter of teachers have access to ICT for teaching mathematics. The use of ICT is even lower in the earlier grades (4–9), where only 10% of the teachers said they used ICT for teaching mathematics. Furthermore, the data showed that teachers are generally more comfortable with integrating calculators when teaching mathematics and statistics, as compared to using computers. This indicates that teachers may need training in the integration of computers into the teaching of mathematics and statistics in the classroom. Even though the practice of integrating technology into teaching instruction was not well developed among these teachers, they exhibited a positive view with respect to teaching using technology. Of interest is the finding that teachers who reported that they use the internet for instructional purposes held more positive views about the broad goals of mathematics and were also more confident about teaching mathematics than those teachers who did not. Beswick et al. (

A problem that has been exposed is that although some schools are reported to have computers, these computers are not used in instructional practice, but are used for administrative purposes. It is not clear whether this is because teachers do not have the necessary skills or are reluctant to use the computers, or whether it is because school management is restricting the teachers’ access to the technology. If computers are available but are not being used, the possible reasons for this state of affairs need to be urgently probed. Interventions that seek to increase access to technology will not be successful if the roll-out of computers does not result in a concomitant increase in the teachers’ use of the technology. This study has provided evidence that teachers who attend workshops are more likely to use technology in their instructional practices than those who do not; hence, interventions that aim to increase the use of ICT in schools must be accompanied by continuous support. It is the support through workshops that will enable teachers to develop confidence in using technology and this may lead to more progressive attitudes by school management regarding the use of computers in classrooms. An important finding of the study is that teachers display different levels of technological readiness and enthusiasm according to their age, experience, gender and how well resourced their school is. Older teachers appear to need more support to help them become more confident to take on the technology.

Younger teachers are more confident and will not need as much support as their older counterparts. In addition, the study has also provided further evidence of the digital divide between schools with different quintile rankings. The digital divide presents a barrier to achieving equity in the provision of quality education to all learners. The removal of the digital divide requires more than just resources because it is the way in which the resources are used that makes the difference in the quality of the learning experience that is offered. The study shows that teachers from quintile 1 schools need much more sustained attention and support, different in form and substance from those from quintile 4 and above.

Successful integration of technology can have a transformative effect on schools and the education system as a whole. The study shows that teachers who have made a start at using the internet for their teaching have also developed broader understandings about the value and aim of teaching mathematics. Hence, helping teachers to take on technological resources is likely to assist them to develop new pedagogies that can help learners engage productively with the content of the subject. Continuous professional development will be required to help teachers integrate the newly acquired technological knowledge into their pedagogical knowledge so that they can develop in all the components specified in Mishra and Koehler’s (

The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.

O.U. performed the analysis of data and made a first draft of the manuscript. S.B. refined the draft. D.N. was responsible for checking the accuracy and suitability of the statistical analysis. O.U., S.B. and D.N. contributed to the conception of the study.