Original Research

Mathematics teachers’ levels of technological pedagogical content knowledge and information and communication technology integration barriers

Gabrielle de Freitas, Erica D. Spangenberg
Pythagoras | Vol 40, No 1 | a431 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/pythagoras.v40i1.431 | © 2019 Gabrielle de Freitas, Erica D. Spangenberg | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 May 2018 | Published: 11 December 2019

About the author(s)

Gabrielle de Freitas, Department of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Erica D. Spangenberg, Department of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Many mathematics teachers struggle to effectively integrate information and communication technology (ICT) in their teaching and need continuous professional development programmes to improve their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This article aims to identify mathematics teachers’ levels of TPACK and barriers to integrating ICT as a means to inform their continuous professional development needs. The TPACK framework of Mishra and Koehler was used as a lens for this the study. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilised. Ninety-three mathematics teachers, who completed a quantitative questionnaire, reported higher levels of content, pedagogical, and pedagogical content knowledge, with comparatively lower levels of technology, technological pedagogical, and technological content knowledge. Ten of these participants also participated in semi-structured interviews and revealed six primary barriers to integrating ICT in the classroom, namely curriculum-related time constraints, technological infrastructure, impact of ICT use on the learning process, ineffective professional development, teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and poor leadership. Continuous professional development programmes addressing specific ICT-integration barriers can effect significant changes in teachers’ TPACK, which may promote better teaching and learning of mathematics.


Mathematics; technological pedagogical content knowledge; teachers; information and communication technology; continuous professional development


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