Improving the strength of alignment between educational components is essential for quality assurance and to achieve learning goals. The purpose of the study was to investigate the strength of alignment between Senior Phase mathematics content standards and workbook activities on numeric and geometric patterns. The study contributes to strengthening the intended curriculum and the workbook activities, since workbooks are widely used in South African public schools. The study employed the concurrent triangulation research design. The theoretical framework comprised Webb’s alignment model and the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum. The Senior Phase mathematics content standards and Department of Basic Education workbooks were selected for content analysis. The findings showed that the alignment between Senior Phase mathematics content standards and workbook activities on numeric and geometric patterns was significantly acceptable with misaligned content and representations that require urgent attention. We recommend reconfiguration of both the workbook activities on numeric and geometric patterns and Senior Phase mathematics content standards to align content, cognitive levels, representations and assessment. Further studies on teaching and learning that are aided by the workbook activities should be mandated.

The investigation of the strength of alignment ensures synergy between curriculum components’ main content standards, classroom instruction and assessment (Polikoff & Porter,

The importance of measuring the strength of alignment between educational components remains a prerequisite for any education system (Porter,

In 2012, the DBE in South Africa rolled out an initiative to provide workbooks to Grades 1–9 learners in public schools (Hoadley & Galant,

The aim of the study was to investigate the strength of alignment between SPMCS (DBE,

Alignment studies on educational components have been conducted internationally in various disciplines (FitzPatrick, Hawboldt, Doyle, & Genge,

A handful of studies employed Webb’s alignment with focus on investigating the alignment between content standards and assessment. FitzPatrick et al. (

An alignment study that employed SEC, and subsequently outlined the computed alignment index, was conducted by Ndlovu and Mji (

The alignment studies reviewed above employed different alignment models which provided various dimensions, such as the content structure and the alignment indices. To justify the significance of the alignment indices, studies used Fulmer’s indices (Ndlovu & Mji,

Studies (Fleisch et al.,

The generalised focus of NGP systematically integrates concepts such as arithmetic, algebraic thinking and reasoning (Carraher et al.,

In contrast, with the learners’ conceptions that involve arithmetic computation of a constant difference, substitution in the protocol to determine any term in the sequence is referred to as

Cognitive levels distinguish the level of thinking and the appropriate depth of understanding (Zhuge,

DBE (

The theoretical framework for this study comprised two alignment models: Webb (Russell & Moncaleano,

The SEC was employed to compute alignment indices between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP, where content proportions, assessment proportions and cognitive levels were used. Content proportions are fractions or percentages used to compare how much content is covered by the cognitive levels, while assessment proportions are the fractions of assessment covered by the cognitive levels. The cognitive levels distinguish and classify the ability to think, understand and solve problems (Zhuge,

We employed mixed methods to investigate alignment between workbook activities on NGP and SPMCS. Qualitative and quantitative data were generated, analysed and corroborated through the concurrent triangulation design (Creswell,

Concurrent triangulation design.

In this study, Webb’s alignment guides the qualitative method. Qualitative content analysis explains patterns of content, cognitive levels and representations of the mathematics content standards and the workbook activities on NGP. Quantitative data were generated through Porter’s alignment model. Correlational prediction design was used in this study. The criterion variable is the alignment index which provided the forecast of the outcome using content and cognitive levels, which were the predictor variables (Creswell,

The following documents were purposively selected in order to investigate the alignment between SPMCS and DBE workbook activities on NGP: (1) DBE CAPS Grades 7–9 Mathematics (DBE,

Prior to data collection, DBE granted permission for the selection of the Senior Phase Mathematics CAPS document and DBE workbook activities on NGP. The university to which the authors are affiliated granted ethical clearance. The instruments for collecting quantitative data were adapted from the SEC (Porter,

In line with how qualitative data were generated, and to evaluate the degree of alignment between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP, data analysis was also based on categorical concurrence, depth of knowledge consistency and range of knowledge correspondence.

Three scales of agreement were adapted from Webb’s content focus and were used to categorise the degree of alignment between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP. They were: (1) full alignment, which depicted equal corresponding matches for content standards, cognitive complexity and knowledge comparisons, (2) acceptable alignment, which is sufficient matches in terms of content standards, cognitive levels and knowledge comparisons, and (3) insufficient alignment, in terms of exclusion from the workbook activities on NGP when compared to the requirements of the SPMCS (Webb,

The quantitative data were analysed following Porter’s (

Alignment indices were then calculated using the formula: alignment index =

To ensure that the quantitative results are trusted, reliability and validity were assessed consistently throughout the study (Ivankova,

The permission for conducting this study was sought from, and granted by, the Department of Basic Education. Ethical clearance for the study was granted by the university to which the authors are affiliated. Ethical clearance number: TREC/10/2018:PG.

The overall qualitative results for the alignment between the workbook activities on NGP and the SPMCS were on the scale ‘acceptable alignment’ using the three Webb’s content focuses. On the other hand, the overall quantitative results indicated that the Porter’s alignment index was in the range ‘

We outline the degree of alignment in terms of the three Webb’s content focuses, namely categorical concurrence, depth of knowledge consistency and range of knowledge correspondence.

This Webb’s content focus was limited to investigating whether the content found in the workbook activities on NGP corresponded with the content required by the SPMCS. The subtopics were used as units of comparison for content standards required by the SPMCS that were compared to the content of the workbook activities on NGP (

Grades 7–9 categorical concurrence and scale of agreement.

Content identified on SPMCS | Content identified on workbook activities (NGP) |
|||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Grade 7 |
Grade 8 |
Grade 9 |
||||

Content identified | Scale of agreement | Content identified | Scale of agreement | Content identified | Scale of agreement | |

Investigation and extension of:
Numeric patterns. |
Description of numeric patterns. | Acceptable | Identification of numeric patterns. | Acceptable | Extension of numeric patterns. | Full |

Geometric patterns/patterns in physical or diagrammatic form. |
Creation of geometric patterns. |
Full | Extension of geometric pattern. |
Full | Creation and completion of geometric patterns. | Full |

Patterns with constant difference. |
Description of patterns with constant difference. | Acceptable | Identification of constant difference on numeric patterns. | Acceptable | Extension of pattern with constant difference. | Full |

Patterns with constant ratio. |
Description of patterns with constant ratio. | Acceptable | Identification of constant ratio on numeric patterns. | Acceptable | Extension of pattern with constant ratios. | Full |

Patterns with neither constant difference nor ratio. |
Description of the rule of patterns with neither a constant difference nor ratio. | Acceptable | Verifying patterns with constant difference or ratio. | Acceptable | Extension of pattern with neither constant difference nor ratio. | Full |

Patterns from learners’ own creation. |
Creation of own patterns. | Full | Creation of own patterns. | Full | Creation of own patterns. | Full |

Patterns represented in tables. |
Completion of the table. |
Full | Completion of the table. |
Full | Completion of the table. |
Full |

Patterns represented algebraically. |
- | Drawing and completion of the table using algebraic language. | Full | Completion of the table using the rule. |
Full | |

Description of general rule of patterns in own words or in algebraic language. | Description of the rule in own words. | Full | Stating of the rule. |
Full | Description of the rule of patterns. | Full |

- | Description of patterns represented by number lines. |
Out of scope | Calculation of number of matchsticks used. | Out of scope | - | - |

- | Solving of patterns in context. | Out of scope | - | - | - | - |

- | Writing of patterns in algebraic language and determination of their values. |
Out of scope | - | - | - | - |

- | Description of the pattern and making a diagram to show the value of the term. | Out of scope | - | - | - | - |

Note: Overall scale of agreement of content identified on workbook activities (NGP) for Grade 7 = Acceptable; Grade 8 = Acceptable; Grade 9 = Full.

describe the rule for the pattern, 6, 14, 22, 30; describe the pattern, 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, …

describe the pattern and draw a number line to show each, 8, 10, 14, 20, 28, …

describe the rule in your own words, 6, 9, 12, 15, …

calculate the 20th term using a number sequence, 2, 5, 10, 17.

(DBE,

These examples were limited to the description of number patterns, rules and drawing on number lines to show the patterns. The descriptions and drawings limited the extent of learners’ investigation and extension of the NGP and did not allow justifications, as outlined in the SPMCS. The ‘out of scope’ content that appeared in the workbook activities were not matched since they were not required by the Grade 7 content standards. In Grade 7, the NGP are limited to a description in words and not in either drawings, algebraically or in context. However, such content was found in the Grade 7 workbook activities and deemed ‘out of scope’. An example of content on workbook activities that was deemed ‘out of scope’ in Grade 7 was extracted from DBE workbook:

Thabelo is building a model house from matches. If he uses 400 matches in the first section, 550 in the second and 700 in the third section, how many matches will he need to complete the fourth section, if the pattern continues? (DBE,

Patterns in context were found to be ‘out of scope’, because the content did not form part of the content standards requirement for Grade 7. Furthermore, ‘out of scope’ content was also identified in Grade 8 workbook activities on NGP. The following example was extracted from the Grade 8 workbook:

Calculate the number of matchsticks used, 4th hexagon has 4 matchsticks per side (DBE,

This was considered out of scope since the skill of calculation was not outlined in the Grade 8 content standards. However, all content covered in the Grade 9 workbook matched the content with Grade 9 content standards. The scale of agreement between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP under categorical concurrence was as follows: acceptable in Grade 7 and Grade 8, and full in Grade 9. The acceptable alignment was obtained where content of the workbook activities on NGP sufficiently matched the content on the content standards, while full alignment was obtained where content of the workbook activities on NGP fully matched the content on the content standards (

describe the pattern by giving the rule and then extend it with three more terms, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, …

describe the pattern by giving the rule and then extend it by three terms, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, …

describe the pattern by giving the rule and then extend it by three terms, 2, 4, 12, 48, 240, …

(DBE,

The content of these activities fully matched the content on the Grade 9 content standards, since extension and description of rules of patterns are requirements of Grade 9 content standards.

This Webb’s content focus was employed to verify whether the workbook activities on NGP measured the same cognitive levels as the SPMCS. The cognitive levels emanated from the verbs of the NGP content standards in the SPMCS that determined the cognitive complexity. The cognitive levels were knowledge, routine procedures, complex procedures and problem solving, which were sourced from the SPMCS (DBE,

Grades 7–9 depth of knowledge consistency and scale of agreement.

Content standards | Cognitive levels identified on SPMCS | Cognitive levels identified on workbook activities (NGP) |
|||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Grade 7 |
Grade 8 |
Grade 9 |
|||||

Cognitive levels identified | Scale of agreement | Cognitive levels identified | Scale of agreement | Cognitive levels identified | Scale of agreement | ||

Investigate and extend numeric and geometric patterns looking for relationships between numbers, including patterns: | |||||||

Geometric patterns/patterns in physical or diagrammatic form. |
Knowledge | Knowledge | Full | Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full |

Patterns with constant difference or ratio. |
Knowledge |
Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full |

Patterns from learners’ own creation. |
Knowledge | Knowledge | Full | Knowledge | Full | Knowledge | Full |

Patterns represented in tables. |
Knowledge |
Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full |

Patterns represented algebraically. |
Routine procedures | - | - | Routine procedures | Full | Routine procedures | Full |

Description and justification of general rule of patterns in own words or (algebraic language, Grade 8 and Grade 9). | Knowledge |
Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full | Knowledge |
Full |

Note: Overall scale of agreement of Cognitive levels identified on workbook activities (NGP) for Grades 7, 8 and 9 = Full.

The data in

Describe the pattern by giving the rule and then extend it by three terms,

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, …

2. 25, 5, 1, 0.2, 0.04, …

(DBE,

The first pattern above required either knowledge of basic multiplication (2; 2 × 2; 2 × 2 × 2; 2 × 2 × 2 × 2; 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2; 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 ×2 × 2) or knowledge of exponents (2^{1}; 2^{2}; 2^{3}; 2^{4}; 2^{5}; 2^{6}) to extend the pattern and determine the rule, while the second pattern required application of the simple procedure of dividing successive terms to get the difference, then deducing the rule. These workbook activities were matched with cognitive levels knowledge and routine procedures. The cognitive levels of these workbook activities matched with the cognitive levels of the Grade 9 content standards, as description and extension of patterns fell under cognitive levels knowledge and routine procedures on the content standards. Hence, the alignment between the workbook activities and Grade 9 content standards was full. These activities were limited to two cognitive levels, knowledge and routine procedures. The same applies to Grade 7 and Grade 8: only knowledge and routine procedures were covered in NGP workbook activities. An example extracted from the Grade 8 workbook is given below:

What is the constant difference or ratio between the consecutive terms?

6, 24, 96, 384

8, 2, –4, –10

(DBE,

The first pattern above requires knowledge and simple procedure of multiplication and division (

Describe the pattern

2, 8, 32, 128, 512

Describe the pattern and draw a number line to show each

10, 9, 7, 4, 0

(DBE,

The first activity above requires knowledge of multiplication and the simple procedure of dividing the next term by the previous term to be able to describe how the pattern grows, whereas the second activity requires knowledge of integers, number lines and the simple procedure to subtract the previous term from the next term. Hence, these workbook activities fell under knowledge and routine procedures. These cognitive levels matched with the cognitive levels on the Grade 7 content standards, as description of patterns fell under knowledge and routine procedures. Moreover, the patterns in context that were found in the workbook for Grade 7 were labelled as problem solving by DBE whereas they, in fact, fell under knowledge and routine procedures. This is highlighted since problem solving require high levels of cognitive skills and reasoning to solve the problem (DBE,

Lisa read 56 pages on Sunday, 66 pages on Monday, 76 pages on Tuesday, and 86 pages on Wednesday. If this pattern continued, how many pages would Lisa read on Thursday? (DBE,

The activity can be solved by adding 10 pages for the next day as the pattern is growing by 10 without engaging high level of cognitive reasoning. The workbook activities on NGP were configured using cognitive levels stipulated in the SPMCS. The overall scale of agreement on the depth of knowledge consistency was fully aligned.

The SPMCS and the workbook activities on NGP were based on the range of content. The unit of comparison included the ranges of content standards’ representations as required by the SPMCS and tested by the workbook activities on NGP (

Grades 7–9 range of knowledge correspondence and scale of agreement.

Ranges of patterns identified on SPMCS | Ranges of patterns identified on workbook activities (NGP) |
|||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Grade 7 |
Grade 8 |
Grade 9 |
||||

Ranges of patterns | Scale of agreement | Ranges of patterns | Scale of agreement | Ranges of patterns | Scale of agreement | |

Numeric patterns | Numeric patterns. | Full | Numeric patterns. | Full | Numeric patterns. | Full |

Geometric patterns/patterns in physical or diagrammatic form. |
Geometric patterns. | Full | Geometric patterns. | Full | Geometric patterns. | Full |

Patterns with constant difference |
Patterns with constant difference. | Full | Patterns with constant difference. | Full | Patterns with constant difference. | Full |

Patterns with constant ratio |
Patterns with constant ratio | Full | Patterns with constant ratio. | Full | Patterns with constant ratio. | Full |

Patterns with neither constant difference nor a constant ratio. |
Patterns with neither constant difference nor ratio. | Full | Patterns without constant difference or ratio. | Full | Patterns with neither constant difference nor constant ratio. | Full |

Patterns from learners’ own creation. |
Patterns from learners’ own creation. | Full | Patterns from own creation. | Full | Patterns from own creation. | Full |

Patterns represented in tables. |
Patterns represented in tables. | Full | Pattern represented in tables. | Full | Patterns represented in tables. | Full |

Patterns represented algebraically. |
Patterns represented algebraically. | Out of scope | Patterns represented algebraically. | Full | Patterns represented algebraically. | Full |

- | Patterns represented on number lines. | Out of scope | Patterns with integers. | Out of scope | Patterns with whole numbers. | Out of scope |

- | Patterns in context. | Out of scope | Patterns with whole numbers. | Out of scope | Patterns with integers. | Out of scope |

- | Patterns with integers. | Out of scope | - | - | Patterns with common fractions. | - |

- | Patterns with whole numbers. | Out of scope | - | - | Patterns with decimal fractions. | - |

Note: Overall scale of agreement of ranges of patterns identified on workbook activities (NGP) for Grades 7, 8 and 9 = Acceptable.

The data in

Grade 9: Describe the pattern by giving the rule and then extend it by three terms,

Grade 7: Describe the pattern and draw a number line to show each, 8, 10, 14, 20, 28 (DBE,

The ranges of patterns for these workbook activities could not match the ranges of patterns on SPMCS, hence were deemed ‘out of scope’.

Number patterns represented on drawing.

This workbook activity was deemed ‘out of scope’ since description of patterns using drawing was not a requirement of the Grade 7 content standards. The scale of agreement between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP under range of knowledge correspondence was as follows: acceptable alignment in Grades 7–9. This resulted in the overall scale of agreement on range of knowledge correspondence between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP being ‘acceptable alignment’.

The computed Porter’s alignment indices for Grades 7–9 are outlined in this section. The data in

Grades 7–9 SPMCS matrix.

Grade | Content on NGP | Cognitive levels |
|||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Knowledge | Routine procedures | Complex procedures | Problem solving | ||

7 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words | |||||

8 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words or in algebraic language | |||||

9 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words or in algebraic language | |||||

Grades 7–9 workbook activities on NGP matrix.

Grade | Content on NGP | Cognitive levels |
|||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Knowledge | Routine procedures | Complex procedures | Problem solving | ||

7 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words | |||||

8 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words or in algebraic language | |||||

9 | Investigation and extension of NGP | ||||

Description of the general rule of patterns in words orin algebraic language | |||||

The data in

Similarly, Porter’s alignment indices for Grade 8 and Grade 9 were computed to be 0.60 and 0.71. These indices indicate that the alignment between the SPMCS and the workbook activities on NGP for Grades 7–9 are in the range ‘

Grades 7–9 alignment indices between Senior Phase Mathematics Content Standards and numeric and geometric patterns workbook activities.

The computed Porter’s alignment indices were as follows: 0.89 (89%) for Grade 7, 0.60 (60%) for Grade 8 and 0.71 (71%) for Grade 9. The information in

Grades 7–9 discrepancies between Senior Phase Mathematics Content Standards and numeric and geometric patterns workbook activities.

Both weak and strong discrepancies were obtained between SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP in Grade 7, Grade 8 and Grade 9. A positive value depicts strong discrepancy, while a negative value portrays a weak discrepancy on NGP workbook activities for those cognitive levels. There was a strong discrepancy for knowledge in Grade 7, while the discrepancies for Grade 8 and Grade 9 are weak. While there was a weak discrepancy in routine procedures in Grade 7, there was a strong discrepancy for Grade 8 and Grade 9. There were no discrepancies obtained for the three grades on complex procedures and problem solving because the discrepancy value was zero.

This study evaluated the strength of alignment between the SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP in terms of the content structure and the alignment indices. This evaluation is brought together in

Summary of the research findings.

Grade | Status of alignment |
||
---|---|---|---|

Webb ( |
Porter ( |
||

Criteria of content focus | Level of agreement | Alignment indices | |

Grade 7 | Categorical concurrence | Acceptable | 0.89 |

Depth of knowledge consistency | Full | ||

Range of knowledge correspondence | Acceptable | ||

Grade 8 | Categorical concurrence | Acceptable | 0.60 |

Depth of knowledge consistency | Full | ||

Range of knowledge correspondence | Acceptable | ||

Grade 9 | Categorical concurrence | Full | 0.71 |

Depth of knowledge consistency | Full | ||

Range of knowledge correspondence | Acceptable | ||

Overall | - | Acceptable | 0.73 |

The degree of alignment on the alignment indices ranges from ‘

The aim of the current study was to investigate the strength of alignment between the SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP. This study elucidates two remarkable results for the determination of misalignment. Firstly, Webb’s alignment shows that certain parts of the SPMCS and the workbook activities on NGP were acceptable in content and representations, and fully aligned on cognitive levels. Secondly, the overall Porter’s alignment index was in the range ‘

In this study, the corroboration of the quantitative and qualitative results in a concurrent mixed method replaces the calculation of the traditional statistical significance of the alignment index (Creswell & Clark,

The convergence of the results.

Webb’s alignment posits alignment that is ‘acceptable’ for content and representations on the scales of agreement, categorical concurrence and range of knowledge correspondence, while depth of knowledge consistency was found to be fully aligned. The ‘acceptable’ finding posits sufficient matches in terms of content and representations, which is short of ‘full’. This alignment is closely associated with the overall computed Porter’s alignment index of 0,73, which is in the range ‘

The workbook activities are formative assessment and form part of the

Porter’s alignment shows discrepancies on how the SPMCS and NGP workbook activities favoured knowledge and routine procedures in Grades 7–9 (

The corroborated results that jointly revealed disagreements between the SPMCS and workbook activities pose concerns about the quality of the CAPS in NGP. Some content on NGP is hidden in the learning outcomes (DBE,

The disagreements between the SPMCS and the NGP workbook activities poses mismatch in content progression in the following areas: (1) algebra and geometry as generalised arithmetic in numeric and geometric patterns. The absence of complex procedures in the workbook activities is an indication that the process of generalising number patterns using algebra and geometry is fragmented (Pittalis & Christou,

This study contributes to the existing literature on teaching and learning support materials by investigating the strength of alignment between the SPMCS and workbook activities on NGP. The simultaneous use of Webb’s alignment and Porter’s alignment afforded the opportunity to study both the depth and quantity of the strength of alignment. The linearity of Webb’s alignment requires reconfiguration to cater for ‘out of scope’ components during the matching. The dearth of studies that mix alignment methods afforded this study a contribution to existing literature which needs further research. Also, the reconfiguration of the Webb’s alignment should result in the consideration of content that is misplaced in the content standards.

This study investigated solutions to the following initial research question: how are the workbook activities on numeric and geometric patterns aligned to the Senior Phase mathematics content standards? This investigation detected that, when configuring the workbook activities on NGP, reasonable attempts were made to conform to the SPMCS. However, some chunks of content and representations of the workbook activities on NGP were either missing in the workbooks or out of scope when compared to the SPMCS. This mismatch increases the possibility of negative effects on learners’ ability to generalise algebra using arithmetic, algebraic thinking, and algebraic and geometric reasoning relevant for NGP. The complementation of the two approaches employed in this study leads to the conclusion that certain parts of the workbook activities on NGP and the SPMCS are misaligned with respect to content and representations. Some content and ranges of patterns were found in the workbook activities whereas they are not requirements of SPMCS. In addition, cognitive levels ‘complex procedures’ and ‘problem solving’ were not covered in SPMCS and NGP’s workbook activities. Although the misalignment was low, its effects may be devastating to the algebraic and geometric cognitive development of learners. The provision of problem solving and complex procedures relevant to specific grades in the Senior Phase workbook activities on NGP requires urgent attention. There is dire need to reconfigure the workbooks to conform to the content requirements of the SPMCS for grades in the Phase, which could avoid conceptual meddling. These findings require further research on a larger scale in order to address other content areas of the workbooks. Also, further research is required on the pedagogical aspects of the workbook activities on the NGP which could inform the reconfiguration of the workbooks.

This study was limited to numeric and geometric patterns, while the findings leave a dilemma for further studies that may cover other content areas and topics in the workbooks as learning support materials. Also, the alignment in the Senior Phase paves the way for an opportunity for studies on conceptual progression that results from the observed misalignment.

The review of literature indicated that most teachers in public schools use workbooks against the DBE’s intentions of supplementing the

This research emanates from the dissertation of the first author at the university of affiliation. We thank the content analysts for their professional work of coding the qualitative data and quantitative data.

There is no conflict of interest that links the authors to this article.

A.D.Q. was the student under the supervision of Z.B.D and K.C. Z.B.D. conceptualised the article, K.C. worked on the logical presentation of the ideas and the methodology, and A.D.Q. provided the first draft of the article.

The research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public.

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors which are neither from policy nor those of the university of the authors’ affiliation.